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Czasowniki (Los Verbos) PDF Drukuj Email

CZASOWNIKI (LOS VERBOS)

 

W języku hiszpańskim wyróżniamy 3 grupy czasowników. Czasowniki kończące się na –ar, -er, -ir.

-AR (hablar, datar, explotar, matar)

-ER (comer, beber, perder, saber)

-IR (vivir, fingir, vestir, abrir, dividir)

 

Czasowniki regularne odmieniają się poprzez odrzucenie końcówki czasownika, pozostawienie tematu i dodanie odmienionej końcówki w odpowiednim czasie. Dla przykładu czasownik w czasie teraźniejszym odmieniamy według poniższego schematu:

 

Osoba

yo

él, ella, usted

nosotros/as

vosotros/as

ellos/as, ustedes

Grupa I –AR (HABL-)

-o

-as

-a

-amos

-áis

-an

Grupa II –ER (COM-)

-o

-es

-e

-emos

-éis

-en

Grupa III –IR (VIV-)

-o

-es

-e

-imos

-ís

-en

 

Np. Yo hablo en tres idiomas: polaco, inglés y español. Mówię w trzech językach: polskim, angielskim i hiszpańskim.

Istnieje wiele czasowników nieregularnych (tzw. z obocznościami). Wyróżniamy następujące typy oboczności:

 

O:UE (np. PODER)

puedo

puedes

puede

podemos

podéis

pueden

I:Y(np.CONSTRUIR)

construyo

construyes

construye

construimos

construís

construyen

U:UE (JUGAR)

juego

juegas

juega

jugamos

jugáis

juegan

E:IE (np.QUERER)

quiero

quieres

quiere

queremos

queréis

quieren

E:I (np. SEGUIR)

sigo

sigues

sigue

seguimos

seguís

siguen

 

 

WAŻNE! Należy jednak pamiętać, że oboczności występują we wszystkich osobach za wyjątkiem pierwszej i drugiej osoby liczby mnogiej. Wtedy zachowuje regularną odmianę.

Np. No puedo ir contigo porque estoy muy ocupada. - Nie mogę iść z Tobą, bo jestem bardzo zajęta.

Ellos quieren que vayas con su hija al cine. - Oni chcą, żebyś poszedł z ich córką do kina.

 

Poza tym występuje spora ilość czasowników zwrotnych.

Czasowniki zwrotne (czasownik + partykuła „se”) odmieniają się przez wszystkie osoby. „Se”  możemy tłumaczyć na język polski jako „się”. Warto jednak pamiętać, że o ile w języku polskim partykuła ta jest nieodmienna tak w języku hiszpańskim odmienia się przez wszystkie osoby. Część zwrotna zawsze występuje przed czasownikiem i pisze się ją oddzielnie. Wyjątek stanowią formy bezokolicznika w zdaniu - wtedy część zwrotna występuje po czasowniku i jest pisana łącznie.

Np. LLAMAR-SE (nazywać się)

 

Yo me llamo - nazywam się

Tú te llamas - nazywasz się

Él se llama - nazywa się

Nosotros nos llamamos - nazywamy się

Vosostros os llamáis - nazywacie się

Ellos se llaman - nazywają się

 

Przykłady:

Cada día me levanto a las seis. - Każdego dnia wstaję o szóstej.

Ale: Cada día me gustaría levantarme a las seis. - Każdego dnia chciałbym wstawać o szóstej.

 

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